Silutanispermum kvacekiorum E.M.Friis, P.R.Crane et K.R.Pedersen

Plant Fossil Names Registry Number: PFN000099


Authors: E. M. Friis, P. R. Crane & K. R. Pedersen

Rank: species

Genus: Silutanispermum E.M.Friis, P.R.Crane et K.R.Pedersen

Reference: Friis, E. M., Crane, P. R. & Pedersen, K. R. (2018): Extinct taxa of exotestal seeds close to Austrobaileyales and Nymphaeales from the Early Cretaceous of Portugal. – Fossil Imprint 74(1–2): 135–158.

Page of description: 151

Illustrations or figures: text-figs 11–12

Name is type for

Silutanispermum E.M.Friis, P.R.Crane et K.R.Pedersen 2018


Holotype S170238 (Famalicão sample 025), Palaeobotanical Collections, Department of Palaeobiology, the Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden
Figures: text-figs 11a, b, d, e, 12a, b

Note: Paratypes: S174352 (Famalicão sample 025), deposited in Palaeobotanical Collections, Department of Palaeobiology, the Swedish Museum of Natural history, Stockholm, Sweden.

Original diagnosis/description

Isolated seeds occurring singly. Seeds small, anatropous, bitegmic and exotestal. Seeds bilaterally symmetrical with dorsiventral plane of symmetry. Seed surface smooth without longitudinal ridges. Raphe indistinct externally. Hilum and micropyle separated by a narrow zone of testal sclerenchyma. Hilar scar small, triangular without a rim. Micropyle formed by the inner integument (tegmen) and marked on the seed surface by a transverse, slightly wavy slit through the outer integument (testa) adjacent to hilar scar. Testa formed from an outer layer (exotesta) of palisade-shaped sclerenchyma cells and an inner thick layer of large parenchyma cells (mesotesta/endotesta), that is particularly well-developed close to hilum. Palisade-shaped cells of exotesta with unevenly thickened walls that are thick towards the outside, slightly thinner towards the inside, but with an almost straight lumen. Anticlinal walls of palisadeshaped sclerenchyma strongly undulate towards the inside and towards the outside, resulting in stellate-undulate facets and a jigsaw puzzle-like pattern on the seed surface except over the raphe where the cell walls are straight and facets polygonal. Tegmen thin. Embryo tiny with two rudimentary cotyledons.


In recognition of Zlatko and Jiří Kvaček for their many contributions to angiosperm palaeobotany.


Cretaceous, Lower Cretaceous
late Aptian – early Albian or older
Type horizon: below the Figueira da Foz Formation


Famalicão (39°42′16″N; 8°46′12″W).

Plant fossil remain

macro- and meso-fossils-embryophytes except wood


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