Acanthocatia virginiensis E.M.Friis, K.R.Pedersen et P.R.Crane

Plant Fossil Names Registry Number: PFN001962


Authors: E. M. Friis, K. R. Pedersen & P. R. Crane

Rank: species

Genus: Acanthocatia E.M.Friis, K.R.Pedersen et P.R.Crane

Reference: Friis, E. M., Pedersen, K. R. & Crane, P. R. (2013): New diversity among chlamydospermous seeds from the Early Cretaceous of Portugal and North America. – International Journal of Plant Sciences 174(3): 530–558.

Page of description: 543

Illustrations or figures: figs 11–13

Name is type for

Acanthocatia E.M.Friis, K.R.Pedersen et P.R.Crane 2013


Holotype PP53364, Paleobotanical Collections, Department of Geology, The Field Museum, Chicago, Illinois, USA
Figures: fig. 11A, C

Note: Holotype from sample Puddledock 082.

Paratypes: PP53200, PP53202, PP53254, PP53255, PP53359,PP53362, PP53363, PP53369, PP53370, PP53718, PP53722, PP53723, PP53888, PP53911–PP53914, PP53924–PP53926 (sample Puddledock 082); PP53927 (sample Puddledock 083).

Original diagnosis/description

Seeds small and orthotropous. Nucellus fused to integument for approximately one-third to half its length, free apically. Integument free from seed envelope for its full length except at the base where it is broadly attached. Integument apically extended into a long micropylar tube extending beyond seed envelope. Micropylar tube lined by an outer and inner epidermis. Micropylar canal open apically and closed farther down by cells of the inner epidermis that expand radially toward the center of the canal. Seed envelope ellipsoidal in lateral view, distinctly four angled in transverse section except at the base where it is circular to elliptical. Surface of seed envelope shows irregular transverse ridges forming a prominent rugulate pattern. Seed envelope extended in the micropylar region into a short, collar-like central projection supporting the micropylar tube and also into four lateral, narrow, and slightly recurved projections. Micropylar tube interlocked with seed envelope proximally by small pits in its outer surface that correspond to oblique, upwardly turned papillae on seed envelope. Inner epidermis of seed envelope of polygonal cells with thin cell walls. Outer epidermis of seed envelope of narrow, longitudinally elongated cells with a thick cuticle. Seed envelope with an inner sclerenchyma zone and an outer zone of nonlignified cells. Sclerenchyma zone with an inner layer of narrow, transversely elongated cells and an outer layer of shorter, longitudinally elongated cells. Apically, inner sclerenchyma cells enlarged and extend radially. Outer zone with narrow, longitudinally elongated tubular cells, most pronounced near base and apex and over the four longitudinal angles of seed envelope. Tubular cells also extend into the four apical projections.


From the state of Virginia, where the fossils were recovered.


Cretaceous, Lower Cretaceous, Albian
Basal part of Subzone IIB, Potomac Group (Early to Middle Albian)


United States
Puddledock locality, Tarmac Lone Star Industries sand and gravel pit, located south of Richmond and east of the Appomattox River in Prince George County, Virginia

Plant fossil remain

macro- and meso-fossils-embryophytes except wood


Use comments to notify PFNR administrators of mistakes or incomplete information relevant to this record.