Quadrispermum parvum E.M.Friis, K.R.Pedersen et P.R.Crane

Plant Fossil Names Registry Number: PFN001968

Act LSID: urn:lsid:plantfossilnames.org:act:1968

Authors: E. M. Friis, K. R. Pedersen & P. R. Crane

Rank: species

Genus: Quadrispermum E.M.Friis, K.R.Pedersen et P.R.Crane

Reference: Friis, E. M., Pedersen, K. R. & Crane, P. R. (2013): New diversity among chlamydospermous seeds from the Early Cretaceous of Portugal and North America. – International Journal of Plant Sciences 174(3): 530–558.

Page of description: 545

Illustrations or figures: figs 14–17

Name is type for

Quadrispermum E.M.Friis, K.R.Pedersen et P.R.Crane 2013


Holotype PP53896, Paleobotanical Collections, Department of Geology, The Field Museum, Chicago, Illinois, USA
Figures: fig. 14A, B

Note: Holotype from sample Puddledock 082.

Paratypes: PP53201, PP53361, PP53889, PP3891–PP53895, PP53928–PP53932 (sample Puddledock 082); PP53898, PP3899, PP53900, PP53933 (sample Puddledock 083); PP53934 (sample Puddledock 151); PP53935 (sample Puddledock 156); PP53936 (sample Puddledock 182).

Original diagnosis/description

Seeds small and orthotropous, borne in the axils of opposite bracts. Integument free from seed envelope for its full length except at the base where it is broadly attached. Integument apically extended into a long micropylar tube that extends beyond the seed envelope. Micropylar tube lined by an inner and outer epidermis. Micropylar canal open apically and closed farther down by cells of inner epidermis that expand radially toward the center of the canal. Seed envelope ellipsoidal to ovoid and distinctly four angled in cross section except at the base where it is circular to elliptical. Surface of seeds with irregular transverse ridges forming a coarsely rugulate pattern. Seed envelope extended in the micropylar region into a short, collar-like central projection supporting the micropylar tube and laterally into four small knob-like protrusions. Micropylar tube interlocked with seed envelope proximally by small pits in its outer surface that correspond to oblique, upwardly directed papillae on seed envelope. Inner epidermis of seed envelope of relatively large longitudinally elongated polygonal cells with thin cell walls. Outer epidermis of seed envelope of narrow, longitudinally elongated cells with a thick cuticle. Seed envelope with an inner sclerenchyma zone and an outer zone of nonlignified cells. Sclerenchyma zone with inner layer of narrow, transversely elongated cells and outer layer of shorter, longitudinally elongated cells. Apically, inner sclerenchyma cells enlarged and extended radially. Outer zone poorly developed.


From the small size of the seeds (Latin: parvus for ‘‘small’’).


Cretaceous, Lower Cretaceous, Aptian
Basal part of Subzone IIB, Potomac Group (Early to Middle Albian)


United States
Puddledock locality, Tarmac Lone Star Industries sand and gravel pit, located south of Richmond and east of the Appomattox River in Prince George County, Virginia

Plant fossil remain

macro- and meso-fossils-embryophytes except wood


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