Proencistemon portugallicus E.M.Friis, P.R.Crane, K.R.Pedersen, M.M.Mendes et J.Kvaček

Plant Fossil Names Registry Number: PFN002789


Authors: E. M. Friis, P. R. Crane, K. R. Pedersen, M. M. Mendes & J. Kvaček

Rank: species

Genus: Proencistemon E.M.Friis, P.R.Crane, K.R.Pedersen, M.M.Mendes et J.Kvaček

Reference: Friis, E. M., Crane, P. R., Pedersen, K. R., Mendes, M. M. & Kvaček, J. (2022): The Early Cretaceous mesofossil flora of Catefica, Portugal: angiosperms. – Fossil Imprint 78(2): 341–424.

Page of description: 355

Illustrations or figures: text-figs 8a–f, 9a–g

Name is type for

Proencistemon E.M.Friis, P.R.Crane, K.R.Pedersen, M.M.Mendes et J.Kvaček 2022


Holotype P0341, Geological Museum of Lisbon, Portugal
Figures: text-fig. 8a, c, d

Note: Holotype from sample MM282.

Paratypes: S266015, S266016 (Catefica sample 49), S170393, S170394 (Catefica sample 50), S174257 (Catefica sample 150), S122086 (Catefica sample 342) (all housed in Palaeobotanical Collections, Department of Palaeobiology, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden).

Original diagnosis/description

Staminate inflorescences spherical with closely packed, unisexual flowers radiating from the central axis. Each flower delimited by a bract subtending one or two stamens. Anthers sessile, or almost sessile, narrowly elongate, dithecate and tetrasporangiate, lacking a well-developed filament but with a short flattened apical connective. Anther dehiscence lateral by longitudinal slits. Pollen small, trichotomocolpate, circular in outline, semitectate-reticulate, columellate, with long, scattered columellae and a homobrochate reticulum. Muri with a rounded profile and supratectal ornamentation composed of minute verrucae aligned in two to three longitudinal rows that create poorly defined transverse ridges over the muri. Aperture margin indistinct. Aperture membrane irregularly verrucate. Orbicules spherical with fine verrucate-spiny ornamentation.
[As for the genus with the following addition]: anthers very narrowly elliptical and of the same width from base to apex.


From Portugal where the fossils were recovered.


Cretaceous, Upper Cretaceous
Almargem Formation, Early Cretaceous (Aptian-early Albian)


Catefica (39° 03ʹ 30ʺ N; 09°14ʹ 30ʺ W), between the villages of Catefica and Mugideira, about 4 km south of Torres Vedras.

Plant fossil remain

macro- and meso-fossils-embryophytes except wood


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