Symphaenale Mas.Takah., E.M.Friis et P.R.Crane

Plant Fossil Names Registry Number: PFN002799


Authors: M. Takahashi, E. M. Friis & P. R. Crane

Rank: genus

Reference: Takahashi, M., Friis, E. M. & Crane, P. R. (2007): Fossil Seeds of Nymphaeales from the Tamayama Formation (Futaba Group), Late Cretaceous (Early Santonian) of Northeastern Honshu, Japan. – International Journal of Plant Sciences 168(3): 341–350.

Page of description: 342


Symphaenale futabensis Mas.Takah., E.M.Friis et P.R.Crane

Original diagnosis/description

Seeds anatropous and ovoid, sometimes slightly pointed at the micropylar-hilum end. Raphe indistinct from outside, entering the seeds obliquely in a subterminal position and extending for almost the full length of the seed. Hilum separate from, but adjacent to, the micropyle. Micropylar area marked by a distinct plug with a papillate surface. Exotesta composed of columnar sclerenchyma cells with anticlinal walls that are straight toward the inside of the seed, but irregularly folded toward the outside resulting in a jigsaw puzzle-like cell pattern on seed surface. The resulting deeply digitate outer facets of the columnar sclerenchyma each have 9–11 lobes.


Generic name is an anagram of Nymphaeales, suggesting the mixture of characters of extant nymphaealean genera seen in the fossil.

Plant fossil remain

macro- and meso-fossils-embryophytes except wood

Names associated with genus

Symphaenale futabensis Mas.Takah., E.M.Friis et P.R.Crane 2007


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