Rugonella trigonospermum E.M.Friis, K.R.Pedersen et P.R.Crane

Plant Fossil Names Registry Number: PFN002855


Authors: E. M. Friis, K. R. Pedersen & P. R. Crane

Rank: species

Genus: Rugonella E.M.Friis, K.R.Pedersen et P.R.Crane

Reference: Friis, E. M., Pedersen, K. R. & Crane, P. R. (2009): Early Cretaceous mesofossils from Portugal and eastern North America related to the Bennettitales-Erdtmanithecales-Gnetales group. – American Journal of Botany 96(1): 252–283.

Page of description: 263

Illustrations or figures: figs 58–71

Name is type for

Rugonella E.M.Friis, K.R.Pedersen et P.R.Crane 2009


Holotype PP53373, Paleobotanical Collections, Department of Geology, The Field Museum, Chicago, Illinois, USA
Figures: figs 58, 59, 61, 63, 64, 66–71

Note: Holotype from sample Puddledock 083.

Paratypes: PP53381–PP53383, PP53700–PP53704 (sample Puddledock 082), PP53698–PP53699 (sample Puddledock 083).

Original diagnosis/description

Seeds small, bilaterally symmetrical (with a single axis of symmetry) and two lateral wings; nearly circular in longitudinal outline in the broadest view, micropylar region slightly pointed; shallowly triangular, three-lobed in cross section with three grooves separating the lobes. Integument thin, micropylar tube long, narrow. Integument enclosed by a seed envelope, except for the micropylar opening, attached to the envelope only at the base. Micropyle open at the apex. Below, micropylar closure distinct, multicellular, with enlarged cells that extends toward the center of the micropyle fi lling the lower half of micropylar tube. Inner surface of seed envelope smooth, nonpapillate; outer surface deeply rugulate, except on the wings. Seed envelope with an inner and an outer layer of sclerenchyma. Cells of inner sclerenchyma layer long, narrow and thin-walled, arching in a distinct chevron pattern. Fiber arches broad and high. Cells of outer sclerenchyma layer longitudinally aligned, narrow. Demarcation between inner and outer sclerenchyma layers distinct.


Referring to the triangular shape of the seeds.


Cretaceous, Lower Cretaceous
Basal part of Subzone IIB, Potomac Group; early or middle Albian


United States
Puddledock, Tarmac Lone Star Industries sand and gravel pit, south of Richmond and east of the Appomattox River, Prince George County, Virginia (37°15′45″N, 77°22′25″W)

Plant fossil remain

macro- and meso-fossils-embryophytes except wood


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