Geminispermum virginiense E.M.Friis, P.R.Crane et K.R.Pedersen

Plant Fossil Names Registry Number: PFN000592


Authors: E. M. Friis, P. R. Crane & K. R. Pedersen

Rank: species

Genus: Geminispermum E.M.Friis, P.R.Crane et K.R.Pedersen

Reference: Friis, E. M., Crane, P. R. & Pedersen, K. R. (2019): Geminispermum, an Early Cretaceous (early–middle Albian) cupulate unit from the angiosperm-dominated Puddledock flora of eastern North America. – Acta Palaeobotanica 59(2): 229–239.

Page of description: 231

Illustrations or figures: figs 1A–G, 2A–H, 3A–C

Name is type for

Geminispermum E.M.Friis, P.R.Crane et K.R.Pedersen 2019


Holotype PP56588, Paleobotanical Collections, Department of Geology, The Field Museum, Chicago, Illinois, USA
Figures: figs 1A–G, 2A–H, 3A–C

Note: Holotype from the Puddledock sample 185.

Original diagnosis/description

Reproductive (ovulate) unit bisymmetrical consisting of a short axis bifurcating into two cupule-bearing stalks. Cupule-bearing stalks above bifurcation narrowly elliptical and bilaterally symmetrical in transverse section. Each cupule stalk in the axil of, and partially fused to, a prominent bract. Bract several cell layers thick and supplied by a single central vascular bundle. Each cupule stalk bearing a single one-seeded cupule and continuing distally beyond the attachment of the seed to form a broad transverse crest over the cupule apex. Cupule stalk supplied by two vascular bundles. Cupules recurved towards the center of the reproductive unit. Cupule nonvalvate, with parallel longitudinal ridges on its exposed surface and opening by a short transverse slit. Seed almost completely enclosed in the cupule, basally attached, orthotropous, free from cupule except at the base, triangular in transverse section. Micropyle positioned at the transverse slit and projecting only slightly. Nucellus free from the integument except at base. Resin bodies present in axes and bracts.


From the state of Virginia, U.S.A., where the fossil was collected.


Cretaceous, Lower Cretaceous, Albian
Basal part of Subzone IIB, Potomac Group (early to middle Albian)


United States
Puddledock locality, former Tarmac Lone Star Industries (Vulcan Materials Co.) sand and gravel pit, located south of Richmond and east of the Appomattox River in Prince George County, Virginia (lat. 37°15′52″N, long. 77°22′10″W)

Plant fossil remain

macro- and meso-fossils-embryophytes except wood


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