Castanopsis bulgarica Mantz., M.Ivanov et Bozuk.

Plant Fossil Names Registry Number: PFN000968


Authors: D. Mantzouka, M. Ivanov & V. Bozukov

Rank: species

Reference: Mantzouka, D., Ivanov, M. & Bozukov, V. (2020): The first report of an ‘Evergreen Castanopsis type’ wood (Fagaceae) for the late Miocene–Early Pliocene of Europe (Bulgaria, Blagoevgrad Graben). – Geological Journal 56(online)(2): 786–803.

Page of description: 791

Illustrations or figures: figs 4, 5c, d


Holotype BAS-BGQ1, Geography Ecology and Natural Preservation Department, South-West University ‘Neofit Rilski’, Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria
Figures: figs 4, 5c, d

Note: three slides (Repository: Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences)

Original diagnosis/description

Heteroxylous wood, growth rings present, diffuse to semi-ring porosity, numerous vessels per sq. mm; vessels medium to large, characteristically arranged in 2–3 regularly interrupted tangential rows and in dendritic pattern (flame-like), exclusively solitary, circular to oval in outline in early wood and more angular in latewood, tyloses present; exclusively simple perforation plates; opposite to alternate intervessel pits; fibres: present; vasicentric tracheids present; paratracheal axial parenchyma, scanty, vasicentric; apotracheal axial parenchyma diffuse in aggregates; heterocellular rays of two distinct sizes: (a) narrow (uni-, bi- and triseriate) and (b) multiseriate compound and aggregate rays present; no crystals present.


The epithet, bulgarica, is related to the origin of the described material (south-west Bulgaria).


Late Messinian–Early Zanclean (Late Pontian–Early Dacian)


Blagoevgrad Graben (south-west Bulgaria)

Plant fossil remain

fossil wood


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