Gastonispermum portugallicum E.M.Friis, P.R.Crane et K.R.Pedersen

Plant Fossil Names Registry Number: PFN000089


Authors: E. M. Friis, P. R. Crane & K. R. Pedersen

Rank: species

Genus: Gastonispermum E.M.Friis, P.R.Crane et K.R.Pedersen

Reference: Friis, E. M., Crane, P. R. & Pedersen, K. R. (2018): Extinct taxa of exotestal seeds close to Austrobaileyales and Nymphaeales from the Early Cretaceous of Portugal. – Fossil Imprint 74(1–2): 135–158.

Page of description: 138

Illustrations or figures: text-figs 1–2

Name is type for

Gastonispermum E.M.Friis, P.R.Crane et K.R.Pedersen 2018


Holotype S174820 (Famalicão sample 025), Palaeobotanical Collections, Department of Palaeobiology, the Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden
Figures: text-figs 1d–f, 2a, d

Note: Paratypes: S105218, S105220, S170234, S174343, S174430, S174435, S174819, S174821, S175044, S175045, S175082, S175084, S175095, S175100-S175104 (deposited in Palaeobotanical Collections, Department of Palaeobiology, the Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden).

Original diagnosis/description

Isolated seeds occurring singly. Seeds small, anatropous, bitegmic and exotestal. Seeds bilaterally symmetrical with a dorsiventral plane of symmetry. Seed surface smooth without longitudinal ridges. Raphe distinct, seen externally as a slightly raised rounded ridge that extends from hilum to the chalazal end opposite the micropyle. Hilum and micropyle separated by a narrow zone of sclerenchyma. Hilar scar small, slightly raised without a hilar rim. Micropyle formed by the inner integument (tegmen) and marked on the seed surface by a Y-shaped slit through the outer integument (testa) adjacent to the hilar scar. Testa formed from an outer layer (exotesta) of palisade-shaped sclerenchyma cells and an inner thin layer of thin-walled parenchyma cells (mesotesta/endotesta). Palisade-shaped cells of exotesta with evenly thickened anticlinal walls and a straight lumen. Anticlinal walls of palisade-shaped sclerenchyma strongly undulate toward the inside and toward the outside, resulting in stellateundulate facets and a jigsaw puzzle-like pattern on the seed surface. Tegmen thin. Embryo tiny with two rudimentary cotyledons.


The species is named for Portugal where the fossils were collected.


Cretaceous, Lower Cretaceous
late Aptian – early Albian or older
Type horizon: Figueira da Foz Formation


Famalicão (39°42′16″N; 8°46′12″W)

Plant fossil remain

macro- and meso-fossils-embryophytes except wood


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