Rothwellia foveata E.M.Friis, P.R.Crane et K.R.Pedersen

Plant Fossil Names Registry Number: PFN000212


Authors: E. M. Friis, P. R. Crane & K. R. Pedersen

Rank: species

Genus: Rothwellia E.M.Friis, P.R.Crane et K.R.Pedersen

Reference: Friis, E. M., Crane, P. R. & Pedersen, K. R. (2019): Chlamydospermous seeds document the diversity and abundance of extinct gnetalean relatives in Early Cretaceous vegetation. – International Journal of Plant Sciences 180(7): 643–666.

Page of description: 651

Illustrations or figures: figs 5-7

Name is type for

Rothwellia E.M.Friis, P.R.Crane et K.R.Pedersen 2019


Holotype PP54055, Paleobotanical Collections, Department of Geology, The Field Museum, Chicago, Illinois, USA
Figures: figs 5A, 5B, 6A–6G, 7

Note: holotype: Puddledock sample 143

paratypes: PP54054 (Puddledock sample 151), PP53949 (Puddledock sample 156), PP57081 (Puddledock sample 181), PP53944 (Puddledock sample 182), PP57078 (Puddledock sample 184), PP57079 (Puddledock sample 185), PP57080 (Puddledock sample 189)

Original diagnosis/description

Seeds small and orthotropous. Integument free from the seed envelope for its full length except at the base, where it is broadly attached. Integument extended apically into a long micropylar tube. Micropylar tube formed by an inner and an outer epidermis. Micropylar canal open apically, closed farther down by the cells of the inner epidermis that expand radially toward the center of the canal. Seed envelope ellipsoidal, four angled to almost circular in transverse section. Surface of seed faintly rugulate-foveolate. Micropylar region of seed envelope only slightly extended. Inner surface of the seed envelope in the micropylar region smooth, lacking papillae. Outer epidermis of seed envelope of polygonal, longitudinally aligned cells with a thin cuticle. Sclerenchyma zone of seed envelope with an inner layer of narrow, transversely elongate cells and an outer layer of shorter, radially extended cells with unevenly thickened walls. Zone of parenchyma cells present between the sclerenchyma layer and the outer epidermis. Embryo with two cotyledons.


From the pitted appearance of the seed coat wall in section (Latin foveatus [pitted]).


Cretaceous, Lower Cretaceous
Basal part of Subzone IIB, Potomac Group; Early Cretaceous (early to middle Albian).


United States
Puddledock locality, former Tarmac Lone Star Industries (Vulcan Materials) sand and gravel pit, located south of Richmond and east of the Appomattox River in Prince George County, Virginia (lat. 37°15′52″N, long. 77°22′10″W).

Plant fossil remain

macro- and meso-fossils-embryophytes except wood


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