Tomcatia taylorii E.M.Friis, K.R.Pedersen et P.R.Crane

Plant Fossil Names Registry Number: PFN001964


Authors: E. M. Friis, K. R. Pedersen & P. R. Crane

Rank: species

Genus: Tomcatia E.M.Friis, K.R.Pedersen et P.R.Crane

Reference: Friis, E. M., Pedersen, K. R. & Crane, P. R. (2013): New diversity among chlamydospermous seeds from the Early Cretaceous of Portugal and North America. – International Journal of Plant Sciences 174(3): 530–558.

Page of description: 532

Illustrations or figures: figs 1–5

Name is type for

Tomcatia E.M.Friis, K.R.Pedersen et P.R.Crane 2013


Holotype S154562, Palaeobotanical Collections, Department of Palaeobiology, the Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden
Figures: figs 1A, B, 3A, B, 5A, B

Note: Holotype from sample Torres Vedras 43.

Paratypes: S172610 (sample Torres Vedras 38); S100768, S172611–S172613 (sample Torres Vedras 43).

Original diagnosis/description

Seeds small and orthotropous. Integument extended apically into long micropylar tube that projects well above the seed envelope. Micropylar tube lined by an outer and inner epidermis; cells of outer epidermis smaller in transverse section than those of inner epidermis. Micropylar canal open apically and closed farther down by cells of the inner epidermis that expand radially toward the center of the canal. Seed envelope obovoid in lateral view; in transverse section distinctly four angled in the middle and almost circular apically and basally. Surface of seed envelope with weakly developed transverse ridges forming a rugulate pattern. Seed envelope expanded apically and laterally into a cup-shaped structure with four long and narrow, almost straight, bipartite projections. In micropylar region the seed envelope is extended into short, collar-like central projection that supports the protruding micropylar tube. Near the base of the collar, small, oblique, upward-directed papillae on its internal surface interlock with small pits in the outer surface of the micropylar tube. Inner epidermis of seed envelope composed of relatively large, longitudinally elongated polygonal cells with thin cell walls. Outer epidermis of seed envelope composed of narrow, longitudinally elongated cells with a thick cuticle. Seed envelope composed of inner zone of sclerenchyma cells and outer zone of nonlignified cells. Sclerenchyma zone with an inner layer of narrow, transversely elongated cells and an outer layer of slightly longitudinally elongated cells, one or two outer layers deep. Inner sclerenchyma cells not markedly enlarged or extended near apex. Outer zone with narrow, longitudinally elongated tubular cells that are especially pronounced near the base and apex but also over the middle of the seed. Apically, the tubular cells form the cup-shaped extension and its four bipartite projections. Surface of outer sclerenchyma layer with shallow
and irregular but sometimes sharp transverse ridges giving a finely and irregularly rugulate appearance. Apical projections long, slightly bent.


In honor of Thomas N. Taylor for his contributions to understanding of the fossil record of plants.


Cretaceous, Lower Cretaceous, Aptian
Lower part of the Almargem Formation (Late Barremian-Early Aptian)


Torres Vedras clay pit east of Forte de Forca on the road toward Sarge

Plant fossil remain

macro- and meso-fossils-embryophytes except wood


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